EUROCAE Annual Symposium & 54th General Assembly
DAY 1 | Thursday, 27 April
Registration: 09:00 AM
Starting time: 10:30AM
Session 1: Performance based regulations
Performance-based regulation has been recognised as a new regulatory approach that focuses on desired, measurable outcomes, rather than prescriptive processes, techniques, or procedures, leading to defined results without specific direction regarding how those results are to be obtained.
However, more high-level, performance-based regulations need to be supported by technical standards that provide means of how to comply with the requirements. This has been widely recognised by the regulators and industry stakeholders and is being actively pursued at many levels.
ICAO has set up the Standards Round Table, looking at processes and procedures to implement this approach to drafting of their provisions and enhanced cooperation with the Standards-Developing Organisations (SDOs), and regional and national organisations such as EASA and the FAA already have a long tradition of collaboration with the standardisation bodies.
However, it is also well recognised that performance based regulation might not be appropriate in all situations and for all topics.
The question arises then how to decide whether to follow a performance based or more prescriptive approach? And what is it that is necessary to make it work?
This session will look at the concept of performance based regulation and its practical implementation, based on examples and best practices from various organisations and subject matters.
Session 2: General aviation
The majority of the world's aircraft are GA and most of the world's airports serve GA exclusively.
GA is an environment for experimentation - and the first all-electric aircraft to fly are GA. Innovative avionics are available, although different certification and approval regimes limit the degree of uptake. Currently, this is changing in both Europe and the USA and moving towards performance-based, industry-consensus standards.
GA can fly in the same airspace as Air Transport, so must be able to interoperate safely. GA flies also in uncontrolled airspace with limited interaction with ATC or other aircraft. This leads to a huge variety of technical equipage but with many commonalities. VHF radio communication is universal, while surveillance transponders work on the same frequencies and protocols worldwide and all pilots need to be able to navigate accurately. GPS has facilitated instrument approaches at more and more GA airports, with work on PBN approaches for GA airfields under way, supported by SESAR.
ADS-B and Multilateration to complement radar will increase as European infrastructure is modernised. This has already happened in the USA, where all aircraft are required to be ADS-B equipped by 2020. Moreover, the European surveillance “mandate” is being revised, with possible impact on many GA aircraft. A key challenge is here is to provide suitable equipment at a proportionate and affordable cost.
Overall, GA is a very diverse and dynamic technical and operational environment with much exciting activity, and many questions to resolve for the future interconnected SESAR environment.
Session 3: UAS – regulatory perspective
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has without doubt been the most dynamic sector in aviation over the last couple of years. But it is also extremely diverse with aircraft ranging from a few grams to hundreds of kilograms. Even wider is the spectrum of UAS operations: from the hobbyist who wants to use the aircraft for pleasure - all the way to the military systems that are flown using Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) around the world.
These systems and their operations have to be integrated into civil airspace in a way that is safe for both existing manned aviation (GA and Air Transport) and for the UAS newcomers. This requires an adaptation of the way that aircraft and operations are currently managed. One size does not fit all!
Since the operation of UAS differs greatly from manned aviation, new approaches have to be applied to both, regulation and operation – which is why this Symposium will deal with UAS in two sessions.
The first session looks at the regulatory aspects. With the Riga and the Warsaw declaration the European Commission has set the political goals for the safe integration of UAS into the airspace. EASA, with the A-NPA 2015-10 and the Prototype Regulation on UAS has taken the first step towards regulation of RPAS operations. EASA makes use of the support of JARUS for the development of the provisions that support the implementation of these rules.
And, of course, looking at UAS integration in a risk-based, operation-centric approach, fits well with ICAO’s approach to performance based regulation.
Session 4: Performance Based Navigation (PBN)
Performance Based Navigation (PBN) as a concept is based on the use of Area Navigation (RNAV) systems to ensure global standardisation of Required Navigation Performance (RNP) Specifications. It represents a fundamental shift from sensor-based navigation to performance-based navigation. Significant benefits in terms of more efficient use of the airspace and environmental improvements are expected. However there are still some very important items to be discussed.
For instance, Phraseology and Charting aspects, knowledge and training of flight crew, adequacy of PBN Specifications vs the needs of the end-users, ATC personnel and regulator issues, and a way to allow the General Aviation community to benefit from PBN. The means by which global navigation satellite systems GNSS (Galileo, GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou etc.) can be used within Europe, including associated signal monitoring obligations will also be discussed by the panel. The panel will also touch on the environmental and social impact of PBN with regard to the overflown areas/populations, and the concentration of noise emissions on specific flight trajectories.
Although some of these items are linked to education and knowledge improvement, some will need a regulatory solution and the development of new, or the improvement of existing, Industry Standards. EASA in the upcoming Community Specification for Airborne communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CS-ACNS) will rely heavily on the use of Industry Standards as a means of compliance.
54th EUROCAE General Assembly: starts at 17:30
Dinner followed by the Award Night: starts at 20:00
Venue: Royal Aeronautical Society - No.4 Hamilton Place, London (see directions here)
DAY 2 | Friday, 28 April
Session 5: Datalink services and technologies
Datalink services are recognised as one of the key technical enabler paving the way to the evolution of ATM in order to face the challenges ahead that are the capacity and efficiency improvements to cope with the growing traffic demand over the next decades.
The initial Datalink services (i.e. ATN B1) were standardised more than 15 years ago and are in the process of implementation in different parts of the world based on various technologies. The last package of datalink applications have been standardised in 2016: this package (i.e. ATN B2) covers the basic functionalities to move to trajectory based operations (TBO).
Regarding the radio communication technologies necessary to support the TBO concept, there is a clear consensus to recognise that the current technology selected to support the first datalink services package (i.e. VDL Mode 2) suffers from limitations that result from the non-deterministic behaviour that has been driving the design of this technology.
A ground based cellular system named LDACS that will operate in the L band spectrum part coexisting with several other CNS systems (DME, Mode S, GNSS L5/E5,..). This solution is still under investigation to validate the possible sharing of this spectrum with other critical systems without degrading them.
The roadmap that will drive the deployment of these technologies is still to be consolidated and also must be harmonised at a worldwide level to ensure that aircraft fitted with new technologies will reap the associated benefits during their worldwide operations.
Besides the basic radiocommunication technologies another new debate is now taking place regarding the network aspects (i.e. the capacity of the airborne system to use different technologies in a transparent way from the datalink application point of view). This network function, named the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) is today achievable through two different technologies: ATN OSI (the historical solution standardised at ICAO level for more than 20 years and relying on ISO standards) and ATN IPS (the new alternative that uses the Internet Protocol suite). Today, there is a urgent need to address the way these various options should be deployed in an harmonised and economical way.
The objectives of this session will be to present the current situation and to identify the major challenges ahead that are linked with the technical difficulties that have been faced during implementation in Europe and that are linked with the lack of a clear evolution roadmap regarding the technologies to be deployed (they must be minimised and they must be viable economically – for an operation life cycle of at least 25 years).
Session 6: UAS – technology and operations
This second UAS session will look at the technological and operation related aspects of the safe integration of UAS into the airspace.
In future the determination of the rules to be applied will be performed in a risk-based, operation centric approach. With the three categories of operations (Open, Specific, Certified), a basic categorisation has already been defined.
Since the categorisation of UAS operations will be done in a risk-based approach, the risk assessment is a cornerstone of implementation. The SORA (Specific Operations Risk Assessment) provides guidance on how to determine the risk associated with a specific type of operation.
Standardisation will be key to ensure that the same procedures and technologies are applied globally. EUROCAE WG-105 has been tasked to develop such standards for the whole spectrum of UAS aircraft and operations.
If future operations of UAS shall be successful, it is important to take into account the requirements and needs of manned aviation. Both types of airspace users have to fit into the concept of the provision of Air Navigation Services.
Session 7: System Wide Information Management
System Wide Information Management (SWIM) is an enabler that facilitates interoperable information exchange in the European ATM system, in support of operational improvements identified in the ATM Master Plan. The definition of SWIM is as follows: “SWIM consists of standards, infrastructure and governance enabling the management of ATM information and its exchange between qualified parties via interoperable services”.
Information exchange between parties requires interoperability on various levels. Organisational alignment and process alignment are out of scope of SWIM. These are separately addressed by operational improvement studies within SESAR. Semantic alignment, syntax and interaction are addressed by SWIM standards like the ATM Information Reference Model (AIRM), the Aeronautical Information Exchange Models (AIXM/FIXM/WXXM) and the SWIM Technical Infrastructure Profiles defined within SESAR. Defining an information exchange service compliant to standards ensures interoperability beyond the boundaries of an individual ATM stakeholder, ensuring both an increased cost-efficiency and future agility due to the selection of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).
The implementation of SWIM will not be a big-bang replacement of the existing ATM environment, but rather an evolutionary process based on a gradual transition towards a service-oriented European ATM system. The adoption of SWIM will be flexible, fostering increased levels of collaboration within business domains and enabling supporting systems to interact in an interoperable and standardised way.
Within the SESAR programme, activities on SWIM have reached a maturity level where the first SWIM services are now ready for standardisation.
The European Commission has adopted the Pilot Common Project (PCP) regulation which includes, among others, provisions for the deployment of initial SWIM services using the related and validated SESAR Programme findings as inputs. The rule was published on 27 June 2014 in the Official Journal of the European Union. It aims to ensure that the ATM functionalities developed within the SESAR Programme are deployed in a timely, coordinated and synchronised way. It is expected that this will contribute to cost benefits for Europe’s aviation and air transport sectors.